Zika vaccine: When ?

When can we expect the first Zika vaccine on the market ?

Zika vaccineZika virus has spread rapidly in South and Central America in 2015 to 2016 and outbreaks have been detected in Southern parts of the US like Florida during the summer 2016. This virus is carried by the mosquito Aedes aegyptii and is dangerous for pregnant women because it is associated with babies microcephaly. In addition, it has been shown that the Zika virus is the cause of some rare neurological diseases in adults like Guillain-Barre syndrome in which people experience muscle weakness and paralysis.

So far there is neither therapeutic products to cure the diseases nor a Zika vaccine to prevent the disease. The only ways to escape the virus is to avoid bites from mosquitoes and the list of the best repellent products, mosquito traps and bed nets are reviewed on this site. The WHO has urged Big Pharma companies to develop a Zika virus vaccine but funding  of this research has become a hot topic: the Big Pharma don’t see quick return on investment since there is no proof that the disease will spread again in the near future and politicians are not willing to spend millions of dollars with no cure available before years.

The companies have proposed different strategies for Zika vaccine development. It’s very technical so I won’t explain them in details. They talk about live attenuated vaccines,  inactivated vaccines, DNA vaccines, etc. The big issue to develop the vaccine will be the design of the clinical trial. For example, the first question to address will be which target population to be enrolled in the study ? Second, is how to measure the efficacy of the candidate vaccine ? Third, how to enrol people if Zika does not reappear in the South American countries ? To date, two companies have proposed their support and will collaborate with the US Health Agencies. The first early clinical trial (called Phase I trials) begin recently and the first trials with more subjects to evaluate efficacy and safety of the candidate vaccine (called Phase II trials) are planned early 2017 (Abbasi, JAMA 2016). The first preliminary data could be available as of 2018 but, overall, it will take 3 to 5 years to enroll subjects, perform the analyses (participants will be followed for at least two years) and market the products. Regulators across the world are also in discussion how to accelerate the studies and the evaluation of the data prior to licensure. For example, if there is no disease outbreaks anymore in South America, they suggest to vaccinate infected primates and compare their immune responses with humans or to inject the virus in humans and then evaluate their immune response and safety of the vaccine in well-controlled studies in hospitals. In conclusion, even with different competing vaccines and development strategies, we can’t expect the first Zika vaccine on the market before 2020. Hoping that no Zika outbreaks will emerge in the meantime !

 

The Best Mosquito Granules for Backyards

How to select the right mosquito granules?

Mosquito repellent to mosquito granulescontrol large population of mosquitoes are often produced in granules, making it easier for people to spread them around the place. Mosquito granules are applied to the lawn, ground or anywhere else outdoors and creates a protective barrier around the area.

Biological control of mosquitoes use natural enemies to manage large populations. There are several types of biological control including the direct introduction of parasites, pathogens and predators to target mosquitoes.

Natural granules

Mosquito granulesThose granules usually have a pleasant aroma, contain all natural ingredients and are not harmful to people, pets or plants. Repelling effect of such mosquito granules lasts for one to several weeks. Bonide Mosquito Beater Natural Granules is one of the best sellers on Amazon. According to the producer, it effectively repels for up to 3 weeks. Because it contains essential oils such as geranium oil, cedar oil, lemon grass oil, garlic and citronella oil, it is nontoxic, biodegradable and pleasantly scented. The ingredients in the container might cover 4000 sq. ft.

Larvicides

Mosquito granulesAnother type of yard mosquito repellent produced in granules is mosquito larvicide. It affects mosquito larvae and later prevents the emergence of adult mosquitoes. Larvicides used in granules mimic the action of insect growth regulation hormone. They artificially stunt the insects’ development, making it impossible for mosquitoes to mature to the adult stages, and thus preventing them from reproducing. Two of the common larvicide used against mosquitoes are Methoprene and (S)-Methoprene, both also called Insect Growth Regulators. Methoprene chemical formula is C19H34O3. Mosquito granules such as Altosid Pro-G Mosquito Larvicide (2.5 lb) are simply sprinkled or broadcast in areas where mosquitoes may breed – bird baths, water gardens or other water holding receptacles and are active around 21 days.

Dunks

Third type of yard mosquito granules is simply another form of mosquito dunks. It contains Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis as an active agent that simply kills mosquito larvae. Such mosquito granules dissolve faster than dunks and thus have a quicker impact on mosquito population around the area. One example of product with pretty good reviews is Mosquito Bits by Summit (60-Ounce). They claim that the Mosquito granulesmosquito control will kill the mosquito larvae within 24 hours before mosquitoes are old enough to bite. The dunks will not kill adult insects. The larvae eat the microscopic bacteria in the dunks and then the larvae explode. Hence, their effectiveness is only with the larvae, preventing them from becoming adult insects. The active ingredient is Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies Israelensis the bacteria is registered with EPA. There are no other toxins in the product besides the bacteria Bti. All other ingredients are inert or none active so safe for pets, kids, etc.  For bigger quantities (20-Pound) click this link.

For more informations about mosquito control, please refer to our home page for the Top Mosquito Repellent Reviews.

Mosquito Repellent for Dogs and Cats

Top Mosquito Repellent for Dogs and Cats Reviews

mosquito repellent for dogs and catsWhat’s the best mosquito repellent for dogs and cats?  Although dogs & cats like humans can get bites by mosquitoes, they won’t get the same disease as humans and cases of Dengue Fever, West Nile, etc. are not frequently reported in animals.  In some cases bites can be very dangerous for dogs (e.g. cause lung disease). Cats may develop allergies to mosquito bites which will translate into fevers, sores, swollen lymph nodes, heartworms, etc. So in other words, bites can kill your cat ! With these alarming facts, you are likely wondering whether the DEET spray you have at home can be the solution for treating you pet. First, it’s very important to have in mind that DEET is a very effective repellent for human but should never be used to dogs because if they ingest it at high doses it can be very toxic (e.g. seizures, vomiting) and they also lick their fur. There are many products specially developped for pets, either synthetic or natural. It’s also recommended to treat your pets with a product against heartworm. Be careful when purchasing essential oils because many of these ingredients are ineffective insect repellents and garlic is toxic to pets. Citronella oils and Sandalwood oils are among the best mosquito repellent for dogs and cats as they keep mosquitoes off pets but they should be burnt in the yard to protect the entire yard. Also an alternative way would be to use a propane mosquito trap to prevent mosquito population growth.

Top 3 Mosquito Repellents for Dogs and Cats

ImageProductPriceScore
Epi-Pet Lavender Skin Enrichment Spray for Pets, 16-Ounce$4.4
Wondercide Natural Flea & Tick Control for Pets Home - Cedar & Lemongrass - 4 oz$3.6
K9 Advantix II, Extra Large Dogs, Over 55-Pound, 6-Month$$4.1
$: under 20$; $$:20-50$

Epi-Pet Lavender Skin Enrichment Spray for Pets, 16-Ounce

repellents for dogs and catsEpi-Pet’s 16oz Lavender Scented Skin Treatment Spray is a topical treatment for pets to repel fleas, ticks and mosquitoes. It also treats hot spots, rashes and other mild skin problems. This spray includes the following ingredients: Cedar, peppermint and spearmint oils which are common insect repellents; Tea tree and peppermint oils to provide relief from itching; Galactoarabinan, a natural extract keeping skin properly hydrated; Lavender scent to provide aromatherapy. Epi-Pet’s simple three step (Brush+Spray+Brush) treatment application is quick and easy, taking only minutes to perform. 2-4 applications per day are recommended until the condition is controlled.  Here is a customer’s comment that supports the vendor’s claims: “It also works good to repel mosquitoes from getting on her too. I would definitely recommend this to anyone.”

Features:

  • Relieves pet skin allergies
  • Repels fleas, ticks, mosquitos and flies
  • Relieves itching and excessive shedding
  • Relieves hot spots and redness
  • Skin and Coat Conditioner

 

 

Click here to read user reviews and compare prices on Amazon

Wondercide’s Natural Flea & Tick Control for Pets + Repels Mosquito Adults & Eggs for Cats and Dogs, 4oz Fresh Cedar & Lemongrass Scent

repellent for dogs and catsWondercide natural flea, tick & mosquito control kills the entire flea lifecycle. As an alternative to monthly chemical spot drop treatments like drops and pills, Pets + Home (formerly Evolv) is the natural flea and tick treatment that is both a repellent and kills on contact with no toxic effects to pets or children.  It can be used on pets, bedding, carpeting, upholstery and other surfaces. For cats, there is a 4oz Pets + Home to ensure correct application. This product contains natural, locally-sourced, sustainable ingredients and innovative and involves low-impact manufacturing processes. The active ingredients of this mosquito repellent for dogs and cats are: organic cedar (10%) and grade lemongrass (0.1%) oils.

Features:

  • Safe and natural alternative to chemical pesticides
  • Kills and repels fleas, ticks and mosquitoes
  • Leaves coat shiny and brilliant
  • Safe around children and for puppies, kittens
  • Home is sold in 4oz, 16oz, 32oz (treats 400 sq ft), and 1 Gallon sizes (treats 1500 sq ft).

Click here to read user reviews and compare prices on Amazon

Bayer’s K9 Advantix II Flea, Tick & Mosquito Control Treatment for DogsNo1-Amazon-Bestseller-00

repellent for dogs and catsThis topical flea treatment lets you stop fleas before they become a problem. Used just once a month, it stops fleas from biting in less than five minutes, killing 98 to 100 percent of the fleas on dogs within 12 hours, and keeps working for a month. It also repels and kills ticks before they can attach and mosquitoes before they can bite. Used year-round, it prevents fleas from over-wintering in your home to feast on your dog next season. Gentle enough for puppies as young as seven weeks and older, the flea control remains effective even after bathing, water immersion, or exposure to sunlight, without the need for re-application. The active ingredients are: lmidacloprid 8.8%, Permethrin 44%, Pyrlproxyfen 0.44%. See this page for more informations about permethrin. It is very important to note that permethrin is  very toxic to cats because they metabolize this compound differently from humans and dogs.  The package may vary (e.g. six pre-measured doses for dogs weighing 55+ pounds in easy-to-use applicator tubes). For safety, keep out of the reach of children.

Features:

  • Kills adult fleas, eggs and larvae
  • Effective against mosquitoes up to 4 weeks
  • Remains effective even after swimming or shampooing
  • One treatment prevents further flea infestation for at least four weeks
  • Packaging may vary

Click here to read user reviews and compare prices on Amazon

Zika virus causes Guillain-Barré syndrome

Zika Guillain BarréAfter concerns that the Zika virus causes birth defects, there is some evidence in a report published today that Zika exposure can cause the Guillain-Barré syndrome. This is a neurological disorder that is very rare (1 to 2 cases per 100,000 persons every year) but it can be life-threatening and usually severe. The main symptoms are rapid-onset muscle weakness and, in even less cases, heart failure and death. This disorder could be triggered by an infection such as bites from mosquitoes Aedes aegyptii carrying the Zika virus. In case of  severe weakness, treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins will allow recovery in most of the cases. The potential link between the Zika virus and Guillain-Barré comes from a previous outbreak in 2013 in French Polynesia, where almost all 42 patients with Guillain-Barré were infected with Zika. The Scientists who wrote the paper in The Lancet said that “This is the first study providing evidence for Zika virus infection causing Guillain-Barré syndrome. Because Zika virus is spreading rapidly across the Americas, at risk countries need to prepare for adequate intensive care beds capacity to manage patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome“. Of note, based on the cases reported in French Polynesia, they calculated that for 100,000 persons infected with Zika, 24 could develop the syndrome, which is 10 times more than the rate reported so far. If this discovery is confirmed by other groups of scientists in the coming weeks, then more people should be worried about Zika because it’s no more a threat only for woman who are getting pregnant. Travelling to Latin America could become a concern for everyone. However, it should be reminded that the Zika disease itself is generally not dangerous i.e. only 20% of infected people have symptoms such which mild fever and joint pain. In conclusion, more research needs to be done to prove the link and, importantly,  generally people who develop the Guillain-Barré syndrome recover from it.

What is the Best Zika Repellent ?

The Best Repellent to Avoid Zika Virus

best Zika repellentInsect repellents are one part of a more comprehensive program to control mosquitoes that transmit diseases such as dengue or Zika virus. However, in 2012, scientists found that the mosquito that carries the Zika virus is resistant to most repellent sprays on sale. A test to find the best Zika reppelent was carried out on 19 brands of aerosol repellent and showed that the mosquito plaguing the Americas was unaffected by most of the sprays. Researchers trapped 50 Aedes aegypti mosquitos – the species which carries Zika – in a glass cage and asked volunteers to put their hand inside at hourly intervals for eight hours. Thirteen of the products completely failed to stop the mosquitos biting and only five products offered 100 % protection over the full eight-hour test period. The best Zika repellent were: Jungle Formula Medium, Lifesystems Expedition Plus 50+, Tesco Insect Protection Max strength, Sainsbury’s Insect repellent extra strength and Superdrug Buzz off Standard repellent.

More recently, in 2015, Researchers at New Mexico State University tested 10 commercially available products for their effectiveness at repelling mosquitoes. Their research about the best Zika repellents were published in Journal of Insect Science (The Efficacy of Some Commercially Available Insect Repellents for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus). On the mosquito Aedes aegypti, all DEET-containing mosquito repellents were active: Repel 100 Insect Repellent, OFF Deep Woods Insect Repellent VIII, and Cutter Skinsations Insect Repellent. Only one repellent that did not contain DEET had a strong effect for the duration of the 240 minutes test: Cutter Lemon Eucalyptus Insect Repellent.  Many health authorities recommend Lemon Eucalyptus Oil. The product does repel a range of biting insects and there is no evidence suggesting it should not be used in pregnancy. Citronella oil’s mosquito repellency has also been verified by another research including effectiveness in repelling Aedes aegypti. But it requires reapplication after 30 to 60 minutes.

Conclusions:

  • The most commonly used, safe and effective mosquito repellent is DEET
  • DEET is the best reppelent to avoid bites from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
  • There is no of evidence indicating that DEET is harmful to a foetus.
  • As an alternative, natural mosquito repellents with Lemon Eucalyptus Oil can be used.
  • Don’t forget to apply one of the best Zika reppelent around the lower legs and feet.

Choosing the best Zika repellent for pregnant women can be confusing,  so don’t hesitate to select one of the products listed in the table.

Top 5 Best Zika Repellents

ImageProductContentPriceRate


Cutter 54010 Skinsations 6-Ounce Insect Repellent Pump Spray 7-Percent DEET, Case Pack of 1
7% DEET$4.3

Off! Deep Woods Dry Insect Repellent VIII 4 oz (3 Pack)
25% DEET$$4.8

Repel 94108 100 Insect Repellent Pump Spray, 98.11-Percent DEET, 4-Ounce
98.1% DEET$4.3

Lifesystems Mosquito Repellent 50+ Spray 50ml - 50 ml
50% DEET with natural pyrethroids$NA

Cutter Lemon Eucalyptus Insect Repellent Pump Spray, 4-Ounce
30% Lemon Eucalyptus Oil$4.1
$:0-19; $$:20-50; $$$:50+; NA:not applicable

Efficacy Data of the Best Zika Repellent

For the readers interested by science, I show below a graph of the percentage of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes attracted by a hand treated with each of the best Zika repellent. It is adapted from the article written in 2015 by the scientists at University of New Mexico mentioned above (refer to this publication to see the original data). (Note to the authors if you read this blog: sorry guys I didn’t ask you the permission so let me know if you still agree that I post your data). As explained in the conclusions above, it’s clear from these data that there are at least 3 DEET-based mosquito repellents which work against the vector of Zika virus disease whereas there is only one natural Zika repellent which is effective. Of course, this is from a selection of commercial products but the general conclusion about the best Zika repellent is still valid for any products: choose either DEET repellents or natural ones containing oil of Lemon Eucalyptus.

 

 

How to Make Zika Virus Diagnosis

Zika Virus Diagnosis

Zika virus diagnosisAbout 1 in 5 people infected with Zika virus become ill (i.e., develop Zika). During a Zika virus diagnosis, the most common symptoms are fever, rash, joint pain, or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Other common symptoms include muscle pain and headache. The incubation period (the time from exposure to symptoms) for Zika virus disease is not known, but is likely to be a few days to a week. The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week. Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person for a few days but it can be found longer in some people. Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon. Deaths are rare.

See your healthcare provider for a zika virus diagnosis if you develop the symptoms described above and have visited an area where Zika is found. If you have recently traveled, tell your healthcare provider when and where you traveled. Your healthcare provider may order blood tests to look for Zika or other similar viruses like dengue or chikungunya in order to confirm a Zika virus diagnosis. For more informations about the products available to prevent the Zika disease, click on this link: the Best Repellents against the “Zika” Mosquitoes.

Zika Virus Disease: Facts, Epidemy, Cures

Watch This Video To See What Is Zika Virus And Should We Be Worried Then Read Facts and Figures Below

 

The Facts

Zika virusZika virus was first discovered in 1947 and is named after the Zika Forest in Uganda. In 1952, the first human cases of Zika were detected and since then, outbreaks of Zika have been reported in tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands.

In January 2016, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a first-of-its-kind travel alert: American women of childbearing age, whether pregnant or not, were told to avoid countries where the Zika virus has been circulating. At the same time, women in countries that already have Zika outbreaks have been told to avoid getting pregnant.That’s because Zika, a tropical disease carried from person to person by mosquitoes, has been linked to birth defects and deaths in newborns. Brazil has been battling the largest Zika outbreak yet, with more than a million people infected. But the virus has been identified in 20 other countries and territories in South and Central America and the Caribbean, including Colombia, El Salvador, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Venezuela, and Puerto Rico.

Zika virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito. Two species are known to carry the virus, the Yellow Fever mosquito and the Asian Tiger mosquito. Both species are found throughout most of the Americas. The Yellow Fever mosquito can be found along the Gulf Coast of the United States while the Asian Tiger mosquito can be found as far north as New York City.

Zika virus is related to dengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. These mosquitoes typically lay eggs in and near standing water in things like buckets, bowls, animal dishes, flower pots and vases.  They are aggressive daytime biters, prefer to bite people, and live indoors and outdoors near people.

The most common symptoms of Zika virus disease are fever, rash, joint pain, and conjunctivitis (red eyes). The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting from several days to a week. Severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon. Zika can be passed through sex from a person who has Zika to his or her partners. Zika can be passed through sex, even if the infected person does not have symptoms at the time. Zika can also be transmitted through blood, and mother-to-fetus transmission has been documented throughout pregnancy. A mother already infected with Zika virus near the time of delivery can pass on the virus to her newborn around the time of birth, but this is rare. Following the spread of Zika virus in Brazil, there has been a marked reported increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly; it is not known how many of these cases are associated with Zika virus infection. A women contemplating pregnancy, who has recently recovered from Zika virus infection, should consult her healthcare provider after recovering.

The Epidemy

As of December 2016, the CDC reported a total of 4,617 cases of the Zika virus in the U.S. That number includes lab-acquired cases, travel-associated cases and locally acquired cases:

  • Locally acquired mosquito-borne cases reported: 185
  • Travel-associated cases reported: 4,431
  • Laboratory acquired cases reported:  1
  • Total: 4,617
    • Sexually transmitted: 38
    • Guillain-Barré syndrome: 13

Florida saw its first such case via mosquito bite in July 2016. In November 2016, Texas became the second U.S. state to report local transmission of Zika via mosquito bite.

CDC recommends special precautions for pregnant women and women trying to become pregnant. Pregnant women in any trimester should consider postponing travel to the areas where Zika virus transmission is ongoing. Women trying to become pregnant or who are thinking about becoming pregnant should consult with their healthcare provider before traveling to these areas and strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites during the trip. Because specific areas where Zika virus transmission is ongoing are difficult to determine and likely to change over time, CDC will update this travel notice as information becomes available. Check CDC’s Zika Travel Information website frequently for the most up-to-date recommendations.

 Zika map

Zika situation report (source: World Health Organization)

1 December 2016

zika mapThe Cures

Zika virus

There is no treatment for the Zika virus, and it doesn’t always show symptoms. Nikos Vasilakis of the Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases predicted that 10 to 12 years may be needed before an effective Zika virus vaccine is available for public use. More recently the head of the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) said that they are pursuing at least two approaches to a Zika vaccine. A DNA based vaccine using a strategy very similar to what we employed for the West Nile virus  and a live vaccine building on similar approaches used for the dengue virus. So it all comes down to limiting exposure to the insect.

Here are 5 things you can do when traveling to countries where Zika virus or other viruses spread by mosquitoes are found or if your own area is now under the threat:

  1. Clear and drain standing water. Mosquitoes breed in standing water.
  2. Wear protective clothing.
  3. Use bug spray.
  4. Stay in air conditioning or in places that use window and door screens to keep mosquitoes outside.
  5. Sleep under a mosquito bed net if you are overseas or outside and are not able to protect yourself from mosquito bites.
  6. Keep doors and windows without screens closed.

Treat the symptoms:

  1. Get plenty of rest
  2. Drink fluids to prevent dehydration
  3. Take medicine such as acetaminophen to relieve fever and pain
  4. Do not take aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), like ibuprofen and naproxen, to reduce the risk of hemorrhage (bleeding).

If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication.  If you have Zika, protect others from getting sick. During the first week of infection, Zika virus can be found in the blood and passed from an infected person to another mosquito through mosquito bites. An infected mosquito can then spread the virus to other people.To help prevent others from getting sick, avoid mosquito bites during the first week of illness.

Source: this article was updated in December 2016 so please check the CDC internet site for more recent informations.

CDC

What are the Worst Mosquito Diseases ?

Mosquito Diseases

mosquito diseasesIn contrast to other mosquito diseases, Zika is unlikely to spread much in the United States, although occasional outbreaks are possible as travelers bring the virus back and get bitten by mosquitoes. The risk is mostly confined to the south because the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes that spread Zika don’t live in colder climates. The risk might only be for women who are currently pregnant because 80% of people infected by Zika don’t even feel sick at all. But there are some other mosquito-borne illnesses that are worth watching out for. These mosquito diseases are endemic in the US meaning they are here year-round. Below is the description of few of them against which adequate repellent treatment is crucial.

 

 

 

West Nile virus

mosquito diseases

West Nile was only introduced into the United States in 1999, but it quickly spread to all 48 continental states as well as Canada and Mexico. Since then, it’s infected hundreds of thousands of people, causing severe illness in about 40,000 and killing more than 1,600. More than 2,000 cases were reported last year alone, more than 1,300 of them serious infections that caused meningitis or encephalitis, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. California had a bad year with more than 700 cases and 45 deaths in 2015. West Nile spreads badly because it is carried by several different species of mosquito that are common across the U.S., and because it also infects birds, so they act as what’s called a reservoir for the virus. They can carry West Nile to new places and help keep it circulating. That’s not known to happen with Zika.

 Eastern equine encephalitis virus

mosquito diseasesLike Zika, the eastern equine encephalitis virus  usually does not cause symptoms. An average of eight cases a year are reported in the U.S., according to CDC. Most are in Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, and New Jersey. It kills about a third of patients who develop serious symptoms and can cause severe brain damage in those who survive. Maine health officials reported a death from the encephalitis virus in November and two people in New York died from the virus last year. Encephalitis virus lives in birds but a number of species of mosquito that bite both birds and people can spread it, including Aedes, Coquillettidia, and Culex mosquitoes.

La Crosse encephalitis

mosquito diseasesLa Crosse encephalitis affects 80 to 100 people a year, according to CDC. It’s found mostly in the upper midwest — Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, as well as the mid-Atlantic and southeast. It’s carried by the the treehole mosquito, or Aedes triseriatus. Most people don’t know they have it but it can cause severe symptoms, mostly in children. Fewer than 1 percent of people who develop serious symptom die.

 

St Louis Encephalitis

mosquito diseasesThis one’s rare but people in the southeast can catch it year-round. In some years, like 2013, just a single case was reported. In 2004, 15 cases were reported. But in 1975 there was a big epidemic of severe disease that affected 2,000 people in the midwest.

 

 

 

Malaria

mosquito diseasesThis one is not a virus but a parasite called Plasmodium. It’s used to be common in the U.S. In fact, it’s one of the reasons the CDC even exists. Widespread spraying in the 1940s killed most of the mosquitoes that carry the malaria parasite, and malaria was eradicated from the U.S. in 1951. Unlike the other mosquito diseases listed here, malaria is not endemic in the U.S. but it’s so common that 1,500 cases of malaria are diagnosed each year. Most are in travelers but they have sparked a few local outbreaks.

 

 

 

Other Mosquito Diseases which are not currently in the US

Dengue fever

mosquito diseasesOne of the most common mosquito diseases caused by one of four viruses common to tropical and subtropical climates. The disease is spread by Aedes mosquitoes in much the same way as West Nile and other encephalitic viruses. A mosquito is able to transmit dengue about a week after biting an infected person. As the dengue virus multiplies and damages cells, an infected person begins to show symptoms similar to other infections: High fever, headaches, back and joint pain, rashes and eye pain. If the fever lasts up to a week and is followed by bruising and bleeding, those are symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever. The fatality rate for hemorrhagic fever is about 5 percent, according to the CDC. The World Health Organization estimates that 500,000 people are hospitalized with dengue every year. More than 1.5 million cases of dengue were reported in Brazil in 2015. It causes occasional cases in warmer U.S. states, most recently Hawaii. Hemorrhagic fever cases are estimated in the hundreds of thousands. It is more common to Southeast Asia, where children are especially susceptible. Like most viruses, there is no specific treatment. Doctors recommend acetaminophen, plenty of fluids and rest for dengue and hospitalization for hemorrhagic fever.

Yellow fever

mosquito diseasesA flavivirus orginally common to primates in Africa and South America. Like dengue, it is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito as well as the famous Zika mosquito. The virus incubates in the body for three to six days before an infected person begins to show the common infection symptoms of fever, chills, headache and nausea. There may be a short remission before the disease returns with much more serious symptoms such as nosebleeds, bloody vomit and abdominal pain. Fatality rates range from 15 to 50 percent. While there is no treatment for yellow fever, it is possible to be vaccinated against infection for those living in or traveling to climates where the disease is prevalent.

 

 

Chikungunya

mosquito diseasesChikungunya fever is caused by a virus that is spread to people through the bite of infected mosquitoes.  Like Dengue, it is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, especially Aedes aegypti (the yellow fever  and Zika mosquito) and Aedes albopictus (the Asian tiger mosquito). The incubation period is usually 3-7 days and symptoms can include sudden fever, joint pain with or without swelling, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, lower back pain and a rash. There is currently no vaccine to prevent Chikungunya.  Management of the disease includes rest, fluids and medications to relieve the symptoms of fever and pain, such as ibuprofen, naproxen and paracetamol.

 

What Are The Best Mosquito Treatments  Available ?

mosquito diseases

There are currently vaccines for the Yellow Fever and Dengue and one will be available in a couple of years against Malaria. Otherwise, the best way to prevent the Mosquito diseases is to use repellent spray, bed nets or mosquito traps. Clicke on our Reviews to figure out what are the Best Mosquito Repellents, Best Mosquito Traps or Best Mosquito Nets.

What is the Best Mosquito Net ?

Why a Mosquito Net ?

mosquito netWhen accommodations are not adequately screened or air conditioned, consider sleeping with a mosquito net over your bed.  Bed nets are essential in providing protection and reducing discomfort caused by biting insects. Mosquito netting has fine holes that are big enough to allow breezes to easily pass through, but small enough to keep mosquitoes and other biting insects out.If bed nets do not reach the floor, they should be tucked under mattresses. Bed nets are most effective when they are treated with a pyrethroid insecticide. Pretreated, long-lasting bed nets can be purchased before traveling, or nets can be treated after purchase. Effective, treated nets may also be available in destination countries. Nets treated with a pyrethroid insecticide will be effective for several months if they are not washed. Long-lasting pretreated nets may be effective for much longer.

The Best Mosquito Bed Nets

OctoRose Round Hoop Bed Canopy Netting Mosquito Netmosquito net

mosquito netThe OctoRose mosquito net bed canopy provides essential protection against mosquitoes as well as the West Nile Virus. It hangs from a single point, has 23″ diameter top pop out spreader ring, is 98″ tall, has a 472″ circumference at the bottom, and is without side openings. This mosquito net neatly tucks under a mattress or sleeping mat to insure a good insect barrier. It covers the California king size bed and any large beds. It is perfect for those sleeping in mosquito hostile areas. The mosquito bed net is made with nylon and provides stylish draping. Packaged in a clear carry bag, the package size is 13x12x3 inch. It’s available in many colours.

Features:

  • Romantic accent for bedroom, or back yard or , or party enents
  • Style: round hoop canopy net in one opening.
  • Size: 23″ diameter on top, 98″ high, 472″ around the bottom can fit all size bed
  • Suspends from ceiling on loop. 1 piece of hardware hook included.
  • Foldable top ring, easy carry.

EVEN Naturals Mosquito Net, Double Bed Conical Curtainsmosquito net

mosquito netEVEN Naturals Mosquito Nets allow you to get a good night’s rest – insect free. Whether you are using the nets indoors or out, rest assured that the handcrafted, durable fabric will keep even the smallest bugs away giving you a more peaceful sleep. The multifilament polyester fabric is REACH compliant, and not treated with DEET or any other toxic chemicals making it 100% eco-friendly. Each net is handcrafted and reinforced on the areas that typically receive the most wear making it long lasting and more durable than any other net on the market. EVEN Naturals® Mosquito Nets are the ideal size for covering hammocks, cribs, toddler beds, all the way up to a king size bed. Whether you are camping, looking for a protective layer for your children, or a way to add a touch of romance to the bedroom, EVEN Naturals® has you covered. They include a free carrying pouch for easy and convenient storage of your net, a hanging kit complete with a rope and wall mounts, and a free eBook loaded with tips and tricks for using your net most effectively.

Features:

  • Allowing freedom from harsh chemicals, while providing proper air circulation and keeping out the tiniest of bugs.
  • DURABLE NETTING, TINIEST HOLES (225 holes/inch2).
  • Handcrafted from strong 100% multi-filament polyester REACH compliant materials, making them 100% eco-friendly.
  • Bigger than any other available (H97″ x Ø33 feet), and features an opening for easy entrance.
  • Lightweight and machine washable, and perfect for both indoor and outdoor use.

TMS Four Corner Post Bed White Canopy Mosquito Net

mosquito netLarge White 4-Post Bed Netting Condition: Brand New Color: White Features: 78″(W) x 93″(L) x 96″(H) Four corners with top-loops to hang from a ceiling or tie around bed posts Ideally fits full to king size bed Can also be used to surround a sitting area or outdoor area Four Side openings 100% polyester fabric Hardware Included: Anchors x 4, screw hooks x 4

Features:

  • Large White 4-Post Bed Netting
  • Condition: Brand New Color: White
  • Features: 78inch(W) x 93inch(L) x 96inch(H) Four corners with top-loops to hang from a ceiling or tie around bed posts.
  • Ideally fits full to king size bed Can also be used to surround a sitting area or outdoor area Four Side openings
  • 100% polyester fabric Hardware Included: Anchors x 4, screw hooks x 4. Instruction is not included

Super buy 4 Corner Post Bed Canopy Mosquito Net Full Queen King Size Netting Bedding Whitemosquito net

mosquito netThis is a four corner Mosquito Net,which Is Ideal For Keeping Bugs/Mosquitoes/Insects Aways. It Can Be Used Outdoors As A Dramatic Way To Protect From Flying Insects Too. The Floor Protect You From Biting By Mosquitoes And Files Protect Eyes From Offending By Dazzling Light Prevent You From Dust Ideal FOR Full To King Size Bed Specifications.

Features:

  • White color
  • Four openings
  • Size: 80″×70″×100″(L×W×H)
  • Hardware: 4 anchors, 4 screw hooks
  • Material: Polyester Fabric

Best Mosquito Net Review

ImageProductPriceRate

EVEN Naturals® Mosquito Net | Double Bed Conical Curtains | Fly Screen Netting | Insect Malaria Zika Repellent | Money-back Guarantee | Free Carry Pouch, Hanging Kit & eBook | Home & Travel
$4.7

OctoRose ® Round Hoop Bed Canopy Netting Mosquito Net Fit Crib, Twin, Full, Queen, King (White)
$4.3

TMS® 4 (Four) Corner Post Bed White Canopy Mosquito Net Full Queen King Size Netting
$$4.3

Super buy 4 Corner Post Bed Canopy Mosquito Net Full Queen King Size Netting Bedding White
$4.2
$: 0-19; $$: 20-49; $$$: 50+

 

Are Mosquito Nets Effective against the Zika Virus ?

biteTechnically speaking yes, it prevents exposure to the mosquitoes, thanks to the well designed net. However, the conventional approach of using a mosquito net at night won’t work 100% against this species because it is mainly active during the day. So consider using additional methods with the bed net to prevent bites by mosquitoes Aedes aegypti. This website provides Guides for the best mosquito synthetic repellents and natural repellents  here and here or check the Menu above at your convenience.

Best Mosquito Trap: The Ultimate Guide

The Best Mosquito Trap Review

Best mosquito trapThis page presents a comprehensive guide on how to select the best mosquito trap. One of the best ways to kill thousands of mosquitoes in the garden or wipe out a local population. They can be small units the size of air purifiers or very big as BBQ. The best mosquito traps don’t repel mosquitoes but attract and kill them. They are powered by electricity or propane. Because mosquitoes find their prey by detecting CO2, octenol and other chemical odors, as well as light and heat, various brands produce CO2, octenol, heat, or light – or a combination of those – to lure mosquitoes in, then trap them in containers where they die. A good internet site for more informations is here. Once the mosquitoes get close to the traps, fans capture and force them into catch basins or bags or onto sticky boards to die. Different mosquito species respond in different ways to the attractants e.g. the Asian tiger mosquito, which can transmit Zika, Dengue fever and yellow fever, is a daytime biter and responds better to visual attractants than chemical odors.

In comparison to chemicals, the Mosquito trap is the best option for large surfaces such as yards, garden, patio, etc. However, the main issue is that it doesn’t work immediately (it can take up to 1 week to kill a mosquito population). So for instant action, refer to one of our Reviews of the best mosquito sprays here or scroll down the Menu above “Best Mosquito Repellents”.

 

 

Top 5 Best Mosquito Trap

ImageProductCategoryCoveragePriceRate

Insect and Mosquito Trap with Ultralight and Suction Fan, Pesticide and Odor Free
electricity300 sq ft$2.3

Dynatrap XL Insect Trap Model DT2000XL - 1 Acre
electricity/CO21 acre$$3.3

Mega-Catch Pro 900 ULTRA Mosquito Trap
CO21.5 acres$$$$3.9

Blue Rhino SV3100 SkeeterVac Mosquito Eliminator, 1-Acre Coverage
propane1 acre$$3.1

Koolatron Guardian Pro Bite Shield Cordless 1-Acre Propane Mosquito Trap
propane1 acre$$$2.7
$:0-149; $$:150-299; $$$: 300-599; $$$$: 600 and more.

 

How to Make the Right Choice ?

best mosquito trapThere are several types of best mosquito traps and it’s not easy to select the best mosquito trap: they can use electricity, propane or CO2 (carbon dioxide). Note that propane mosquito traps can be named as CO2 mosquito traps because propane is used to produce CO2. The propane sold domestically in the United States is usually a mixture of propane, butane and propylene. Below is the advantages of each energy source:

  • Electricity: Probably one of the most significant advantages of electric powered traps is in their ease of use, especially over traps that rely on propane to produce CO2.
  • Propane: Several brands have had significant problems with the connections between their propane tanks and their traps. But the most popular and effective in large area.
  • CO2:  Canisters are less expensive to run and are simple to install and considered safer to use because there is nothing being burned.

Propane mosquito traps utilize two different types of attractant, Lurex and Octenol.best mosquito trap Octenol is used in the North, East Coast and Midwest. Lurex is used in the South because different types of mosquitoes live there.

best mosquito trapLurex has been specifically designed to target the Asian Tiger Mosquito carrying for exampe Zika viirus, West Nile fever and Dengue fever. Note that they are approved by EPA and environmentally friendly.

 

Aspektec’s Insect and Mosquito Trap with Ultralight and Suction Fan

best mosquito trapThe Mosquito Suction Trap by Aspectek is one of the best mosquito trap of small size. It attracts and kills mosquitos and other flying insects including biting flies, stink bugs and small beetles. An Ultraviolet bulb generates insect-attracting light that draws mosquitoes toward the trap. A whisper-quiet vacuum fan sucks insects into the retaining cage where they quickly dehydrate and die. A unique twist-to-close feature guarantees any insects still alive in the retaining cage will not escape when the trap is turned off. Closing the top shuts off trap and keeps any still-living mosquitoes or bugs inside. It is convenient for travel, patios, kitchens and porches.

Features:

  • Non-toxic, no chemicals or poisons
  • Ultraviolet light attracts mosquitoes into trap
  • Protects up to 300 sq ft
  • Quiet to use in house
  • Only 3 Watts of power

Click here to read user reviews and compare prices on Amazon

Mosquito Magnet MM4100 Patriot Mosquito Trap

best mosquito trapA lot of people who bought this one considered the Mosquito Magnet Patriot as one of the best mosquito trap on the market. It’s easy to use. The provided 50-foot, 12V power cord allows placement away from the family area yet near the mosquitoes’ breeding and resting areas. Lawn clips are provided to help secure the power cord. The heavy-duty plastic and marine grade metals make it ideal for harsh environments. The enhanced Mosquito Magnet Patriot has been designed for the homeowner who needs to protect up to a 1 acre area. For optimal results, run your trap 24 hours a day in order to break the mosquitoes’ breeding cycle. Allow 4 weeks to see significant results. The Patriot mosquito trap uses patented Counterflow Technology. This technology allows the trap to emit a precise plume of CO2, heat, and moisture that attracts the biting insects to the trap, while simultaneously vacuuming them into a net where they dehydrate and die within 24 hours. The Mosquito Magnet mimics a large mammal by emitting a plume of carbon dioxide, heat and moisture, which when combined with an additional attractant, Octenol or Lurex3.

Features:

  • Silent and odorless.
  • Up to 1 acre in size.
  • Patented CounterFlow Technology emits a plume of CO2, heat, and moisture.
  • Includes 50-foot low voltage cord & lawn clips to secure cord

Click here to read user reviews and compare prices on Amazon

Blue Rhino SV3100 SkeeterVac Mosquito Eliminator

best mosquito trapThe Blue Rhino SkeeterVac selected as one of the best mosquito trap in our Guide transforms clean-burning propane into CO2 to attract mosquitoes into its trap.Once the bugs are attracted, the Vac&Tac trapping system utilizes a powerful vacuum and sticky paper traps to securely capture them. Propane tank is sold separately. A rain cover protects the mosquito trap from the elements and from children. Assembly and maintenance take only minutes, and no tools are necessary. Within 4 to 6 weeks, an insect reduction can be observed within 1 acre. The Motion Lighting feature attracts a broader range of insects to increase your capture rate. It’s quiet, odorless, child-safe, and presents no pesky cords to trip over or get in the way of the lawn mower. A 1-year limited warranty is included.

Features:

  • Electronic ignition
  • Assembles easily in minutes
  • Measures 25 x 12 x 19 inches; weighs 19 pounds

Click here to read user reviews and compare prices on Amazon

 

Koolatron Guardian Pro Bite Shield Cordless 1-Acre Propane Mosquito Trap

best mosquito trapThe Cordless Guardian Pro mosquito trap requires the installation of a 20 pound propane tank, sold seperately. It utilizes the documented attractiveness of carbon dioxide (CO2), moisture, body temperature(thermal imaging), color, shape and airflow in an effective design that captures and kills mosquitoes. It’s easy to assemble. This weatherproof unit covers a full acre of land. Measuring 19 by 16 by 14.2 inches, and weighing just 28 pounds, the Bite Shield is easy to transport and tucks away just about anywhere.

Features:

  • Propane mosquito trap for cordless trapping anywhere
  • Covers up to 1 acre
  • Dual attraction system converts propane into carbon monoxide and uses octenol
  • Air flow vacuum sucks in the little blood suckers
  • Vacuum powered by thermoelectric technology
  • Cordless

Click here to read user reviews and compare prices on Amazon

Dynatrap XL Insect Trap Model DT2000XL

best mosquito trapThe DYNATRAP offers a 3-way protection plan for insect elimination. First, UV fluorescent bulbs produce warm light to attract insects to the DYNATRAP. Second, an exclusive coating of titanium dioxide (TiO2) inside Dynatrap produces carbon dioxide (CO2), which is irresistible to mosquitoes. Third, the insects are lured to the powerful vacuum fan, where they are collected and trapped into the retaining cage away from the area of usage providing the user safe pest protection and comfortable living quarters.

Features:

  • Easy to set-up and Protects up to 1 acre.
  • No Zapping or Buzzing Sound
  • Dual attraction with UV light and CO2
  • Bulbs last 3000 hours or 4 months

 

 

Click here to read user reviews and compare prices on Amazon

Mega-Catch Pro 900 ULTRA Mosquito Trap

best mosquito trapThe Mega-Catch ULTRA Mosquito Trap mimics sensory signals is likely one of the best mosquito trap in its category. It attracts mosquitoes and other common biting insects from as far away as 150ft. Revolutionary Mosquito-Attracting-Stimuli (MAS) settings, and there are literally thousands of options, enables the Mega-Catch ULTRA to be fine-tuned to target specific mosquito species. While Mega-Catch Mosquito Traps need no carbon dioxide (CO2) to attract mosquitoes, operation of the patented Variable Quantity Slow CO2 Gas Release System will boost capture rates. The Mega-Catch ULTRA mosquito trap contains all the hardware needed to connect the trap to a CO2 cylinder (not included) which can be filled at hundreds of gas supply outlets throughout North America. The package contents includes:1 x MCU-900 Mega-Catch mosquito trap incorporating multifunctional programmable timer, 1 x Liquid Catch Container, 1 x Standard Catch Bag, 1 x External Skirt, 1 x 110-240/12 Volt Weatherproof Transformer, 1 x 60 foot Low-Voltage Extension Cord, 1 x Optional CO2 Gas Attractant System including low pressure gas regulator and 3 foot gas cable with snaplock fittings (cylinder not included), 1 x Stand (zinc plated/powder coated), 1 x Operation Manual.

Features:

  • Maximum range – 150 feet (45m)
  • Maximum coverage – 1.5 acres (0.6 hectare)
  • Patented Variable Quantity Slow CO2 Gas Release System to boost capture rates
  • Revolutionary Mosquito-Attracting-Stimuli (MAS) settings

Click here to read user reviews and compare prices on Amazon

Do-it-yourself Mosquito Trap ?

This video says “Very cheap, effective and easy to make at home”. They won’t likely replace one of the best mosquito trap described above but it could be very useful in outdoor camping activities if you didn’t bring your mosquito trap with you. Let’s try !

 

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